3 mn read India has a population of circa 141 crore people, while China stands at handful crores less. Ironically, China fits into India 18 times. Now India is not only the world’s largest democracy but also the most populous country. Is it going to be the world’s biggest superpower? While most young Indians born today have a chance of living healthy and happy lives and can aspire to be doctors, business tycoons, or politicians, their Chinese counterparts are likely to be much less fortunate. What is their fate in a country with a rapidly ageing population and extremely low replacement level fertility?